In cold and very cold climatic regions, for most of the calendar year, the problem of starting an internal combustion engine (ICE) at a temperature below 0 ° is relevant. Already at a temperature of only –5 ° degrees, a fully charged battery loses about 20% of its charge. In addition, its internal resistance increases. At the time of starting the engine, a large discharge current flows through the battery, which at low temperatures leads to warpage of the plates, loss of active mass and shortened battery life.
Widespread use of EDLCs for the car found in the manufacture of hybrid cars. Their generator operation depends on the internal combustion engine, and the machine is driven by electric motors. An EDLC for a car in such a circuit is a source of quickly received energy at the beginning of movement and acceleration. During braking, the drive recharges.
Traditional methods for solving this problem are reduced mainly to heating the battery or using an additional energy source. Unfortunately, these methods can be applied only if the car is located next to a relatively warm room with an electrical input. For example, a typical 12 or 24 V starting device using a rechargeable battery takes 6-7 hours to charge. Such devices are assembled, as a rule, on lead-acid batteries and operate at temperatures up to –20°.
The ultracapacitor is designed to power the starter when starting the ICE and other consumers with an idle generator or a lack of developed power. Starting is provided in all weather conditions, unlike existing starting devices, at temperatures up to –60° without the use of additional energy sources even with a discharged battery.
Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 31, 2017 No. 1064 provides for the creation of conditions for the accelerated socio-economic development of the Arctic zone, the achievement of strategic interests and national security of Russia in the Arctic, the solution of this problem is unthinkable without the use of reliable transport adapted to extreme conditions.
The proposed project uses a design based on the MSK ultracapacitor. Its capacity varies slightly, compared with the battery, in the entire range of operating temperatures (Fig. 1):
The temperature dependence of the internal resistance is shown in Fig. 2. At -50 ° it increases by 3 times, but the absolute value at the same time remains small. For example, a typical MSK at 25 ° has a resistance of 2 • 10-3 Ω. Accordingly, at -50 ° it will be 6 • 10-3 Ω.
The MSK ultracapacitor is charged through the built-in DC / DC converter. Then there is a full charge of the MSC ultracapacitor to the rated voltage required to start the internal combustion engine with currents of 10...20 A Exactly what provides a smooth warming up of the battery at the same time. The energy stored in the ultracapacitor is enough for three attempts to start the ICE, prepared in accordance with the regulations of the manufacturer. The charge time of the supercapacitor depends on the state of the battery and the ambient temperature.
The ultracondenser energy storage device, designed for an operating voltage of 14 V, provides a maximum starting current of up to 1000 A, has a capacity of 390 F, and charges in 7 minutes. The appearance of the drive is shown in Fig. 3:
Tests of the MSKP-390-14 ultracapacitor showed that it provides confident cranking of the ICE crankshaft of the UAZ-3151 car with the UMZ-417 engine at -18 ° air temperature and 0 ° coolant temperature for 18 seconds. At an air temperature of -24 °, a coolant temperature of -23 °, after overnight storage for 15 hours and frozen oil - up to 12 seconds. This is enough to start a working ICE and confirms the effectiveness of the supercapacitor.